My college squash team at Smith College is currently the only U.S. College Squash team practicing and training. According to NCAA Rules (after August 1st squash will no longer be an NCAA sport) each team is allowed an official season of 19 weeks, with 15 days of competition (the rules do vary slightly for Division I and Division III teams), and with careful planning (paying attention to overtraining) college coaches can increase the time period in which they are able to influence their athletes’ training. Unbelievably, the NCAA forbids coaches from conducting developmental activities with athletes outside of the official 19-week season – especially difficult to comprehend in the many sports (like squash) where athletes do not attain their optimal performances until their late 20’s.
With the U.S. College squash season just ending (for most:) at the Individual Championships on March 6 – now is the time that College squash coaches should be turning their attention to planning out the 2011-12 season. Hopefully coaches will be mindful of longterm planning considerations and use a periodization planning approach to structuring their annual or seasonal plan. Here is a copy of our Smith College Squash Team Four-Year Plan (we get a lot of novices and very few experienced players) and also an example of an annual periodized plan.
One of the primary purposes of a periodized squash plan – in addition to assuring a peak at the most important competition of the year – is to avoid overtraining (other related terms include staleness, overreaching or unexpected underperformance syndrome).
Although training volume and intensity are the most important factors to control in avoiding overtraining, a college coach must also take into account a student-athlete’s academic schedule and their related academic stress.
I have observed three periods of academic stress on my squash team:
- beginning of the semester as students struggle to transition to school and sort out their choice of courses;
- mid-semester due to heavier workloads and midterm evaluations;
- end of semester papers and exams.
Lack of sleep due to studying, and poor nutrition (rushed eating, missed meals, unhealthy snacking and excessive caffeine consumption) are also contributing factors to the “psychological” load of academic work. This contributes to the imbalance in the training-recovery cycle.
Here are three main planning strategies we use at Smith College college to help avoid overtraining:
1) Build periods (days and weeks off) of recovery and regeneration into the team’s competitive schedule. If there is a college holiday (e.g. MLK day) we take the day off and do not practice. If there is a college holiday of a few days – we take the entire week off and add the “extra” week either to the start or end of our schedule (this year it was the end – next year it will be the beginning). Ideally, we try and construct our macro-cycles (planning units of 4-6 weeks), so that we build volume and or intensity for three weeks – then have an easier “unloading” week (e.g., Bompa, 2009; Sleamaker, 1989). Here is the draft of our season schedule next year showing weeks of built around the Smith College academic calendar.
2) Build regeneration activities into every practice. For the last two years we have been following the CorePerformance training philosophy closely in planning the strength and conditioning part of our squash practices. Every Core Performance workout ends with several regeneration and recovery activities. Here is an example workout (Core Performance – Sun. feb. 20) and a short video of some example activities:
3) The last strategy simply involves closely observing the team for signs of fatigue, injury and attention, and watching their response to training exercises and being ready to modify practice plans or a week’s schedule (including giving unplanned days off) on short notice.
Application for Squash Coaches:
1. Plan rest and recovery into your season schedule.
2. Monitor your athletes for signs of overtraining.
3. Be aware of the additive effects of academic stress to the overall training load.