Many squash spectators, players and even coaches misunderstand squash “quickness and speed”, attributing a “fast” player’s ability to physical factors rather than their ability to anticipate what the opponent is likely to do – or not do (partial anticipation). One of the ways to “slow down” a fast player is to use deception to hold your opponent stationary for a longer time or even misdirect them. I have blogged on both (Deception link and Anticipation link) of these topics before but now want to combine them since it is the same, identical motor learning theory behind both notions.
The theoretical idea (e.g., Hick’s Law) behind both anticipation and deception is very simple – the greater the number of options or choices – the slower the reaction time – as illustrated in the graph below.
Practical Squash Examples of the above law:
- When you have glued a straight length to the side wall your opponent has only one choice – to hit straight – so you can cheat over to cut off their shot.
- When you have hit a loose, slow easy ball into the middle of the court, your opponent has so many choices (drive straight or cross, drop straight or cross) that you cannot anticipate and you have to stay put until they actually hit the shot.
As I have blogged before, the best way to develop deceptive players who anticipate well is to have young children (8-12?) be introduced to squash in an environment where deception is valued and they are exposed to a wide variety of practice partners and opponents – then these perceptual-motor skills develop “automatically”. If you are a junior in America this is probably not going to happen since your British squash coach is having you hit endless straight lengths down the wall and working on your fitness through hours of mindless boast and drive. I feel free to joke and make this outlandishly exaggerated comment as I am in fact British:) But although I am joking about “only hit straight lengths a la Jonah Barrington, there is far too much closed drilling going on in our junior programs – and not enough tactical teaching. Here is an example of “tactical teaching” using the Games Approach (ASEP, 2012).
Since in many places great anticipation and deception will not be developed automatically, a systematic approach is needed. What do we mean by systematic?
- Make a list of all situations to be trained in priority order, and make sure to teach anticipation cues and deception options when you introduce and train the situation. Note that “priority order” could mean start with the a) most common situations; b) “easiest” situations (to help athlete gain confidence); c) most difficult situations (since these take longer to learn); d) most important (the situations that cause you to lose the most points in your current match play).
- Theoretically, these lists should be tailored to the developmental level of your player, and integrated into annual, four-year and “lifetime” (e.g., LTAD plans).
Here is an example of a list of prioritized situations.
Application for Squash Coaches
- Do not leave the development of anticipation and deception to chance – train these qualities systematically.
- Train situations not strokes – include the teaching of anticipation and deception every time you train a particular situation.
- Plan your teaching of anticipation and deception by including these in your written annual, four-year, and LTAD plans.